mESC-ISS 2017
International Summer School on Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion
23/24-25 September 2017

Material Characterization   Overviews 
M. Kadri Aydınol
How to Make A Battery:Cell Making Processes (*)
Montse Casas-Cabanas
Overview:Na-ion Batteries
Gulfeza Kardas
Electrochemical Techniques (*)
Dag Noreus
Overview: Alkaline Batteries
Y.Eren Kalay
Advanced Techniques in Electron Microscopy
Mehmet Ali Gulgun
Overview: Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Meltem Sezen
Focus Ion Beam Techniques
Saim Özkar
Catalysis: A Brief Overview
Burak Ulgut
Impedance Spectroscopy and its Applications in Energy Storage
Saban Patat
All Solid-state Li-ion Batteries(*)
Vlodymyr Yartys
Energy Storage Materials probed by In Situ Neutron and Synchrotron Diffraction
H Emrah Unalan
Supercapacitors (*)
(*) in Turkish, Scheduled for 23rd September for Enerji Malzemeleri Yazokulu, could be repeated in English if there are sufficient number of non-Turkish speaking  early comers.


Prof. Kadri Aydınol
Middle East Technical University, Turkey

“How to make a battery: Cell making processes”

Lithium ion batteries. Cell types and components; acitve materials, additives, binders, electrolytes, separators, current collectors and battery casing. Battery processing and equipment; slurry mixing, coating, calendering, electrode cutting, winding/stacking, electrolyte filling and cell closing. Critically important process parameters. Electrochemical characterization and equipment; discharge capacity determination, charge-discharge cycle, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Kadri Aydınol is a professor in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at Middle East Technical University (METU). He received his PhD in Metallurgical Engineering in 1994 at METU. He then joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, as a post-doc, working in the field of Li-ion battery research. He then returned to METU in 1998. He has led a research group with extensive experience on processing and structural and electrochemical characterization of active materials used in lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion, silver-zinc, zinc-air together with an experience in industrial cell making processes.


Dr. Montse Casas-Cabanas,
CIC energigune, Álava, Spain

“Overview: Na-ion Batteries”

Na-ion batteries, Cathode materials: layered oxides and polyanionic materials, cycling stability, reaction mechanisms, doping strategies. Anode materials: carbons, Ti-based materials, alloys. Solid electrolyte interphase(SEI): cycling stability and characterization techniques. Aqueous Na-ion batteries. Materials requirements, material’s state of the art and new prospects and challenges.

Dr. Montse Casas-Cabanas completed her Ph.D. in Materials Science at Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB) in 2006, where she worked on the positive electrode in nickel based batteries. During a stay in Laboratoire Léon Bruillouin (LLB-CEA Saclay, France) in 2004 she developed in collaboration with Dr. Juan Rodríguez-Carvajal the FAULTS program for the refinement of XRD diffraction patterns of faulted materials. After her Ph.D. she joined the Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides (LRCS, Amiens, France) as a post-doctoral researcher where she was involved in the crystallochemical characterization of lithium-ion battery materials from powder diffraction. She also spent one year at Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT, Antwerp, Belgium) as a post-doctoral researcher where she applied transmission electron microscopy to the study of materials for energy storage and conversion.Before joining CIC Energigune she was Maître des Conferences at Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux (CRISMAT, Caen, France) working on energy related materials.Her research focuses on the impact of structure and microstructure in the electrochemical properties of energy storage materials and its study from diffraction techniques.


Prof. Mehmet Ali Gulgun
Sabanci University

“Overview: IT Solid Oxide Fuel Cells”

To facilitate a wide spread commercialization of oxide based fuel cells the operating temperatures need to be decreased down to 300-600 C range. Electrodes and electrolytes based on mixed oxides are offering successful choices down to 500 C. Lately, electrolytes based on amorphous oxides and carbonates may decrease this temperature further down to 300 C range. The lecture will highlight available materials, their performances, drawbacks, and visions for future developments.

Dr. Gulgun received his BSc. Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Bosphorous University (1988), Istanbul, his MSc. Degree in Materials Science, Metallurgy, and Mechanics from Michigan State University(1990), and his PhD. In Ceramic Engineering from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1996). He worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at Tokyo Institute of Technology with Prof. M. Yoshimura on soft materials synthesis, and at Max Planck Institute fur Metall Forschung-Stuttgart with Prof. M. Ruhle on Electron Microscopy of doped interfaces in ceramics. Currently, Dr. Gulgun is working on mixed oxide synthesis, oxide fuel cells, wet and dry ion-batteries, cement chemistry, and high resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy of interfaces at Sabanci University.


Prof. Y Eren Kalay
Middle East Technical University

.“Advanced techniques in electron microscopy”

This shorts course intends to build a notion of advanced microscopy techniques used in various interdisciplinary research areas. The lecture will cover various analytical imaging, spectroscopy and diffraction and in-situ microscopy techniques to describe chemistry and structure from atomic to micron length scales.

Yunus Eren Kalay received his B.Sc(2001) and M.Sc.(2003) degrees in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering from the Middle East Technical University. He obtained his PhD in Iowa State University in 2009. He was a post-doc for 2 years in Ames laboratory before he joined METU where he is an associate professor at the Materials Engineering Dept. Professor Kalay’s research centers on amorphous alloys, namely on the evolvement and the control of amorphous structure during solidification. Prof Kalay has an in-depth expertise on material characterization techniques. This includes advanced electron microscopy techniques which he applied to a wide spectrum of material problems ranging from electronic packaging, rare earth-free magnets and single crystal enhancement. His expertise also includes in-situ experiments involving synchrotron radiation. He actively promotes the use of synchrotron radiation and  in-situ experiments  for material research. Prof Kalay is the editor of MATTER, a journal dedicated to publishing undergraduate research. He is also an active promoter of science in pre-university education.



Prof. Gulfeza Kardas
Cukurova University

Electrochemical Techniques

Electrochemical methods are widely used in characterization and analysis of materials due to their ease of use, fast results, and low-cost instrumentation. In order to use these methods effectively, it is necessary to know the electrochemical systems well and to determine the parameters according to the system properties. The course will introduce the properties of the electrochemical systems, the commonly used dynamic techniques, and the data evaluation. In this context, double layer, electrode potentials, overpotentials, polarization, kinetics of the electrode will be introduced. Then the preparation of electrochemical cells with aspects requiring care will be dealt with. The lecture will continue with open circuit potential measurement, polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques , where necessary emphasis will be made on aspects requiring care in data evaluation. 

Gulfeza Kardas is a professor of chemistry at Cukurova University. She obtained her PhD (1999) in  Chemistry Department from  the same university. She has been a member of staff since then. She was a visiting scientist in Materials Science Department, Southern California University (2005) and Chemistry Department, Illinois University Urbana-Champaign (2011) . She published more than 60 papers on corrosion, electrodeposition, electrochemical hydrogen production, fuel cells and batteries. Her main interest is the characterization of materials in electrochemical systems. She is a member of the International Society of Electrochemistry.


Professor Dag Noreus,
Stockholm University Sweden

Overview: Alkaline Batteries .

The aim is to expand knowledge in energy conversion and storage systems involving rechargeable battery technologies. Energy systems for sustainable use are important in the paradigm shift from carbon-based fuels to renewable power sources by electrochemical energy converters. The lecture will allow the participant to reach an understanding of material properties coupled with an understanding of global limitations in available resources, After a short background in basic static definitions: ∆G, ∆S, electrochemical cell, anode, cathode, Nernst equation etc., we will focus on alkaline batteries especially Ni- based chemistries with aqueous electrolytes, NiMH, NiCd, NiFe, NiZn but also Mn-concepts.  These will be compared with non-aqueous Li-based batteries, LCO, LMO, LFP, NMC, NCA.

Dag Noréus is a professor in the Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry at Stockholm University. He earned his PhD degree in reactor physics in 1982 at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and completed his postdoc at Daimler-Benz, Metal Hydride Laboratory, Stuttgart, Germany, in 1983. Noréus became a researcher in 1984 and a professor in 2000 in the Department of Structural Chemistry, Stockholm University. His research interests include x-ray diffraction, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, and electrochemistry focusing on the understanding of metal-hydrogen interaction in metal hydrides and electrodes. http://www.h2fc-fair.com/hm14/exhibitors/nilar.html  


 Professor Saim Özkar
Middle East Technical University

 “Catalysis- A Brief Overview”

Important concepts and terms in catalysis. A brief review of important industrial catalytic processes. Understanding how the catalysis does work. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous catalyses. What about on the homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis? Activity and reusability or lifetime of catalysts. Designing catalyst for specific reactions with optimum activity and selectivity. Modifying the catalyst to improve the activity, selectivity and stability. Metal-Ligand interactions in understanding the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.Transition metal nanoparticles as highly active and selective catalysts in many important process: -Formation, -Stabilisation, -Catalytic activity versus stability, Applicability.

Saim Özkar has completed his undergraduate study in chemical engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul in 1972, and then worked for two years in industry. He received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry at the Technical University of Munich, Germany in 1976 before joining the Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University as an Assistant Professor in 1979, where he is now a Full Professor. He spent one year at the Max Planck Institute in Mülheim as Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation Scholar in 1986, 2 years at University of Toronto as visiting professor in 1988-1990, and 9 months at Colorado State University as Fulbright Fellow in 2000. His current research interests involve the transition metal nanoparticles; synthesis, characterisation, and catalytic applications in hydrogen generation, hydrogenation, oxidation, and coupling reactions.Saim Özkar was awarded the TÜBİTAK 1996 Science Prize and has been a member of Turkish Academy of Sciences since 1996.


 Dr. Meltem Sezen
Sabanci University

“Focused Ion Beam Microscopy”

The focused ion beam (FIB) has gained widespread use in fundamental materials and  technological applications in recent years  because it offers both high-resolution imaging and flexible micromachining  at the nanometer–micrometer scale. In the simplest case, it provides a fast and  efficient sample preparation technique for TEM where the thinning can be positioned  with a great precision. TEM combined with FIB based sectioning and tomography provide useful information with regard to morphology and elemental distribution in material system comprising sub-components at nanoscale, including interfaces. In this lecture, novel sample preparation methodologies as well as FIB tomography will be introduced and discussed. The complementary analysis will also be presented using HR-TEM imaging coupled with HR-SEM imaging for varying scales, from micron to atomic.

Meltem Sezen received her PhD degree from Institute for Electron Microscopy of Graz University of Technology, Austria in 2009. She then continued working as a postdoctoral research fellow in Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy (ZFE) since 2011. She is currently working as a researcher at the Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM). Her primary research interests include Focused Ion Beam technologies; Dual-Beam (FIB-SEM) instruments; correlative electron/ion beam irradiation damage analysis on conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors; nanocharacterization, nanomodification and nanostructuring of organic optoelectronic devices, nano-scale prototyping and machining using in-situ dual-beam applications, FIB based tomography and advanced TEM sample preparation techniques, Raman Spectroscopy and Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy.



Prof. Saban Patat
Erciyes University

All Solid-state Li-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are now the battery of choice  for mobile electronic devices due to their high energy density and a long cycle life. The safety concerns about LIBs, originating from flammable organic liquid electrolytes, however, have limited their widespread commercial adoption.  The all-solid-state lithium ion battery, in which liquid organic electrolytes are replaced with solid-state-inorganic electrolytes, is considered to be safer and is  a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage devices for wearable devices, electric vehicles , smart grids etc. In this lecture,  all solid state Li-ion batteries will be highlighted with regard to the present state-of-the-art, performances, drawbacks and their future outlook.

Şaban Patat is professor of Chemistry at Erciyes University. He received his PhD in the Department of Inorganic Chemistry at Oxford University in 1993. He then became an assistant professor in 1993,  associate professor in 1995 and a professor in 2000 in the Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University.  His primary research interests include lithium ion- and sodium ion batteries. He spent 6 months in the Department of Chemistry at Reading University as TUBİTAK-NATO Scholar in 1996, 3 months in the Department of Chemistry at Reading University as ESEP Scholar in 1997 and 3 months at Northeastern University as visiting professor in 2013.


Dr. Burak Ulgut
Bilkent University

“Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Energy  Storage and Conversion”

Impedance spectroscopy is an experimental tool that can yield fundamental materials information in  electrochemical storage systems. Basics of impedance spectroscopy will be covered including the basic math and experimental methods. Emphasis will be placed on validating the obtained data and distinguishing the effects of instrumental and sample-based artifacts from actual physical parameters. Applications to energy storage will be discussed using examples of supercapacitors and batteries.

Dr.Burak Ülgüt got his PhD in Electrochemistry from Cornell University in 2007. He  was a postdoc at the Optoelectronics group in the same university for a year. He  then spent 6 years in Gamry Instruments developing various instrumental tools about Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Spectroelectrochemistry. In 2014 he returned to Turkey to spend a year at Inci Aku as an R&D executive. In the fall of 2015 he joined the Chemistry department of Bilkent University where he is leading a research group working on developing new electrochemical measurement and modeling methodologies mostly geared towards a better understanding of energy storage and conversion systems.


Prof. H. Emrah Unalan
Middle East Technical University 

“Overview: Supercapacitors “

Supercapacitors provide higher power density, longer cycle life than batteries and conventional dielectric capacitors. Energy density of supercapacitors, on the other hand, are less than that of the batteries. Therefore, supercapacitors have an important position between the batteries and capacitors. In supercapacitors, most commonly used electrode active materials are carbon based ones, metal oxides and conducting polymers. The lecture will highlight available materials, their performances, drawbacks, and visions for future developments.

H. Emrah Unalan received the BS degree in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering from Middle East Technical University, Turkey in 2002 and the MS and PhD degree in Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University, USA in 2004 and 2006, respectively. From 2006 to 2008, he was a Research Associate in Electrical Engineering Division in Engineering Department at University of Cambridge, UK. In 2008, he joined Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, where he is currently an Associate Professor. His research interests include synthesis of nanotubes/nanowires and their utilization in flexible, transparent,stretchable and textile integrated electronics and energy harvesting devices. The aim of his research is not only the utilization of nanomaterials for unforeseen applications through the fabrication of novel devices but also seeking possibilities for new device concepts and form factor. Dr. Unalan has been working on the development of binary and ternary supercapacitor  electrodes using metal oxides, conducting polymers and various nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and metallic nanowires. He is a member of Materials Research Society (MRS), American Chemical Society (ACS) and a recipient of the Turkish Academy of Sciences Young Scientist Award in 2009, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Incentive Award in 2014, Science Academy Young Scientist Award in 2015.


Professor Volodymyr Yartys
Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Norway

“Energy Storage Materials probed by in situ neutron and synchrotron diffraction

In this lecture,  following the basics of X-ray and neutron diffraction, emphasis will be placed on in-situ characterization techniques based on synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction using sequential Rietveld analysis.

Volodymyr Yartys is professor of materials science and hydrogen technologies at the Institute for Energy Technology and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. He received his PhD in inorganic chemistry from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980 and a Doctor of Sciences in inorganic chemistry from L’viv University in 1995. He then became a professor in inorganic chemistry in 1998. He is working in the fields of materials science of nanomaterials, hydrogen and energy storage with a focus on: (a) Rechargeable Batteries; (b) Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier; (c) Novel Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Battery Applications; (d) Hydrogen storage systems; (e) Use of metal hydrides in energy management. Professor Yartys is the author of 429 publications (210 papers in peer refereed academic journals, 6 patents and three books), and has acted as a project leader in research projects funded by the EU, Norwegian Research Council, Nordic Energy Research, and industry.